What is the official doctrine – what features does Ryle think it has? How is it related to the arguments from Descartes that we discussed?

Write responses to each of the following questions based on the readings for this module. Be sure to answer all questions thoroughly: 1) Ryle describe an “official doctrine”, that he says hails chiefly from Descartes. 2) Ryle argues that Descartes commits a a kind of mistake in arguing for substance dualism. What is this mistake? Explain and give an example (bonus if you can come up with your own example). In what way does Ryle argue that Descartes has committed this kind of mistake? Do you agree or disagree? Explain why.3) Explain the “Mary the Neuroscientist” thought experiment. What is this argument supposed to show? Discuss one objection to it. Do you think the argument is successful? Why or why not? 4) What is the problem of mental causation – why is it a big problem for logical behaviorism and substance dualism? How does type identity theory solve the problem? Explain and discuss.