Chapter 6After reading Chapter 6 – The Ethics of Duty, consider Professor Michael Sandel’s lecture on Immanual Kant’s moral philosophy. http://www.justiceharvard.org/2011/02/episode-06/ German Enlightenment philosopher Immanel Kant (1724-1804) is one philosopher who did much to articulate an ethics of obligation. Kant asked, among many other questions, what is it that can stop people from being evil? His answer, briefly, was reason. Only reason can provide the basis for an ethics of obligation. Kants thinking about such a rationally based ethics of obligation center on two notions: universality and respect for persons. Our text mentions the Kantian Categorical Imperatives:Universality: Always act in such a way that you can will that the maxim behind your action can be willed as a universal law. (page 171)Respect for persons: Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end. (page 173)There is so much literature about Kants contributions to thought, but I suggest the following interview with a leading scholar on Kantian philosophy: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mltfzrk5txU In the interview, concentrate on those elements that relate to the ethical questions. Consider discussion question #11, on page 182. Here is the first of several sequenced clips to the film Liar Liar. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zh6NzOHOU8s Respond to the questions listed:Consider the following cases:Immanuel Kant offers three examples that, to his mind, are not moral actions. In terms of Kantian moral philosophy, explain his reasoning.Example 1: The shop-keeper at the self-owned cafe-bakery always gives the correct change to her customers and a small free cupcake, since being honest and giving a freebee are good for business. Example 2: The fellow’s life is wretched; his wife left him for another man; his children never visit him; even his dog got up one day and left. The same man lost his job because of a layoff, and his kidneys were failing. He commits suicide, to shorten his miserable life.Example 3: Sarah felt so good inside for helping the homeless lady at 11 West Division Street, in Chicago. Sarah felt so much better after giving the woman some good shoes, a thermal, water-proof quilt and fifty dollars. Sarah felt happy because she helped the homeless lady.Were any of the people depicted in the examples truly moral, in terms of Kantian ethics? Apply Kantian moral thinking to one of the examples.Respond with a substantive entry of 250 words or more, as needed, as a post before but no later than Thursday of the forum week; failure to add the substantive entry when requested results in a 10-point reduction. During the rest of the forum time, respond to two or more other students’ major posts, not later than 11:59pm, CST, of the last day of the forum. Do not wait till the last hours of the last day to post; doing so is counter-productive to the idea of a forum designed for the exchange of views.