Answer as questions 1-5 , not a combined paper 1. Between Module 3 and this one, you have had the opportunity to read the Monograph on Research designs by Paul Spector. It provides a detailed tour of experimental versus non-experimental designs. The concluding remarks of the book are given below in italics. How do you visualize yourself presenting a valid design as a part of your proposal? “This monograph has covered considerable material and has presented the major aspects of experimental and nonexperimental design. The reader who has understood this material now has a basic understanding of design and has at his or her fingertips many specific designs applicable to a myriad of research situations. The nonexperimental designs are extremely useful for field studies and program evaluations. Although they are often less than conclusive, they can provide much useful information which may be far superior to intuitive judgment. Furthermore, one should not overlook the value of systematic observation and assume that significant knowledge can only be gained with experimental designs. However, experimental designs are powerful tools for determining the affects that conditions or treatments have on specific behavior. Of course the astute researcher and student of design is aware of the limitations and pitfalls of even the most sophisticated experimental designs. Design is an essential study for both the producer and consumer of research in the social sciences. Past trends that will undoubtedly continue have been toward greater sophistication in social science research methodology and the use of complex designs. The aspiring researcher would do well to consider this text as the beginning to a continuing study of design. Ancillary to that study should be a thorough treatment of statistical methods, which are essential in the analysis and interpretation of data generated by designs. There are far too many poorly designed studies that waste time, resources, and journal space, but it is difficult indeed to conduct good research or fully understand it without a strong background in design.” 2. Discuss why you think the research questions and hypothesis may be considered signposts in research. 3. Why do you think an examination of the variables is important when writing the research questions and hypothesis in a quantitative study? 4. To what extent do you agree with the notion that the most rigorous form of quantitative research follows from a test of theory? 5. Discuss the relative merits of writing research questions and hypothesis for two-phase as opposed to one-phase approach to research.