Curating While Climbing: Perceptions of Historically Black CollegePresidents on the Impact of Mentorship and Professional Development While Ascending to the Presidency”

Narrative for the Dissertation: One of the worst kept secrets in the boutique space of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are the impending departures in the next five years (aging out) and the volatility at the top. This study seeks to address the impact of professional development, mentorship and the nurturing process of formal and informal relationships between HBCU presidents and their mentors while ascending to the presidency. While there are several professional organizations in the business of producing the next wave of presidential leaders, the production of highly skilled, transformational and disciplined leaders are needed. As such, examining the trajectory and the impact of professional development coupled with mentorship, should explore experiences and skills that have qualified and enabled this group to advance in leadership positions. TECHNICAL DETAILS The “Guidelines for Preparing?Dissertation” comply with?requirements of University Microfilms International. Close attention to the Doctoral publication specifications below will result in a final draft that is both professional in appearance and acceptable to the Division of Graduate Studies. Type Fonts and Print Quality?The master copy of the dissertation must be typed on one side of the page only. Standard pica or elite type size and standard type fonts are preferred. Script type fonts may not be used. Italics may be used as specified by the style manual in use. Once selected, the type or printer font and size must be consistent throughout the document. Other special fonts may be used according to directions in the style manual. If a computer printer is used, a letter-quality or laser printer is recommended. The recommended font is Times Roman, size 12. Ribbons and cartridges should be changed, as they produce a sharp, black image. The department will make the final decision on the legibility of type used. No boldface should be used within the dissertation unless the student is following the style requirements of a major journal within the students discipline. Line Spacing Standard double spacing is required for the document text. For wordprocessors, six lines are equivalent to one inch and is the usual default setting. Most style manuals require single spacing to be used within long quotations, long tables, footnotes, multiple captions, and bibliographic entries (for exceptions, see manual recommended by your department). Double spacing should be used between footnotes and bibliographic entries. Margins?The left-hand margin must be one and one-half inches wide to allow for binding, all other margins must be one inch. Adherence to these margins will leave a 6 x 9 inch area on each sheet of the text or illustrative material, including page numbers. On continuation pages, this places the page number on line 7 with text beginning on line 9. Pages with major headings have text ending on line 57 with the page number on line 60. The right margins should not be justified. Pages 8 and 9 have boxes to demonstrate the margins and lines numbers. Typing may extend no more than one single space below the bottom marginal line, and only then to complete a footnote or the last line of a chapter, subdivision, or figure caption. The only exceptions to the margin requirements are: the first page of each chapter or major section of the document, where typing begins two inches down from the top rather than one inch, and tables and figures may be smaller and centered, but not larger than the 6 x 9 inch area. With the exceptions noted above, all tables and figures, including their titles, must conform to the margin requirements. Tables and figures may be photographically reduced to meet margin requirements. Photocopies should be made only from the original copy and must be made with care to ensure that margins on all copies are accurate and consistent. It is not permissible to leave a single line of a paragraph or other subdivision at either the bottom or the top of a page. The last word on a page cannot be hyphenated. Pagination?Every page of the dissertation must have a page number except the title page, copyright page, approval page, abstract pages, and vita. If a frontispiece (usually an illustration or quotation relevant to the subject) is included before the title page, it is assigned the first small roman numeral i, but not numbered. Small roman numerals (ii, iii, iv, etc.) are used for the preliminary pages: dedication, acknowledgments, table of contents, and the lists of tables. The title page is assigned the first small roman numeral (i, or ii if frontispiece is used), but that number does not actually appear on the title page. Arabic numbers are used for the remainder of the document, including the text and the reference material. The pages are numbered consecutively beginning with 1 continuing through to the end of the document. No other numbering scheme is acceptable; the standard scheme may not be disrupted with insertions numbered 10a, 10b, 10c, etc. All page numbers must be placed one inch (line 7) from the top, even with the right margin. On pages with a major heading, such as 6 APPENDIX or BIBLIOGRAPHY and those beginning a chapter or major section, the page number is placed in the center bottom position (1 inch or 7 lines up from bottom, line 60); numbers of preliminary pages also are placed at the center bottom in small roman numerals. Corrections?The retyping or reprinting of pages is the only acceptable form of correction. It is suggested to produce the document on a word processor/computer so that corrections may be made quickly and easily. A word processor/computer also reduces the danger of making new typographical errors in a revised version. This section of the document is adapted from “Thesis/Dissertation Elements and Style,” from the Manual for Thesis and Dissertation 1992 by the Tennessee Conference of Division of Graduate Studies. The text of this document may be reproduced in any form provided acknowledgment of adaptations is given to the Tennessee Conference of Graduate Schools Guide to the Preparation of Theses and Dissertations. Table 1 lists all the potential parts of a dissertation and the order in which they occur. Preliminary Material Title Page This page is assigned Roman number “i,” although the number does not appear on the page. The date used is the month and year of commencement. The student’s name must appear as he/she is registered at the institution. The wording and format must be exactly as shown in Appendix A. Signature Page Each copy of the dissertation submitted to the University must have a signature page sheet using the exact wording and format shown on the sample page. This sheet must be on the same brand and weight of cotton paper and be in the same base type face as the remainder of the dissertation. The name used on the signature page and title page must be that under which the student is registered at the institution. Although the original signature pages may be copies, the committee signatures must be original. Black ink is required for the original signatures. The number of signature lines must equal the number of committee members. The major and degree to be awarded must be exactly those to which the student was admitted officially by the Division of Graduate Studies. The signature page is not numbered. Copyright Page This page is included only if the manuscript is being formally copyrighted, through University Microfilms. Forms are obtained in the Division of Graduate Studies. Dedication Page If the student wishes to dedicate the manuscript, the dedication statement is included at this point. Table of Contents The Table of Contents may vary in style and amount of information included. Chapter or Section titles, the Bibliography or List of References, the Appendix(es), if any, and the Vita must be included. Page numbers given for the Bibliography and Appendix should be those assigned to the separation sheet preceding each of those items. Although it is not necessary to include all levels of headings, inclusion must be consistent. If a particular level is included at any point, all headings of that level must be included. List of Symbols/List of Abbreviations/Nomenclature?The title of this material should reflect its content and may be included to define specialized terms or symbols. This information may also be placed in an appendix. Acknowledgments This page is to thank those who have helped during obtaining the graduate degree. Permissions to quote copyrighted material are listed here, as well as acknowledgments for grants and special funding. Abstract The abstract is a brief summary of the problem and the results of the research. The abstract of the doctoral dissertation should be a concise review of the work and must not exceed 600 words. The following information is typically contained in the abstract: . (1) a short statement concerning the area of investigation ? . (2) a brief discussion of methods and procedures used in gathering the data ? . (3) a condensed summary of the findings ? 7 Table 1. Arrangement of Items in the Dissertation. Item Preliminary Material Title Page?Signature Page?Copyright Page?Dedication Page?Table of Contents?List of Tables?List of Figures?List of Plates?List of Symbols or Abbreviations Acknowledgements?Abstract?Text?Supplementary Material Bibliography or Works Cited Appendix or Appendices?Vita (4) conclusions reached in the study Comment Required Required Optional Optional Required If needed If needed If needed If needed Required Required Required If needed Required Page Assignment Counted as page i, but not numbered Counted as page ii, but not numbered No page number?No page number iii?Small Roman numeral Small Roman numeral Small Roman numeral Small Roman numeral Small Roman numeral Counted, but not numbered Starts with page 1 Follows pagination Counted, but not numbered heading must vary for each level of subdivision unless a numbering system is used to indicate level. The subdivisions within a chapter or section do not begin on a new page unless the preceding page is filled. If there is no room for the complete heading and at least two lines of text at the bottom of a page, the new subdivision should begin on the next page. First and second level subdivisions are always preceded by extra space to indicate to the reader a major shift in subject. Any levels of subdivision below the first two are not required to have extra space above but must be treated consistently. Tables, Figures and Plates Titles Since tables and figures are separate entities, they must be numbered independently. Each table or figure must have a unique title descriptive of its contents. This title appears at the top of the table and at the bottom of the figure. Figures containing parts must be given a general title, after which the figure may be broken down into “A” and “B” parts. For multiple-part figures, the title may be integrated, with titles for each part as part of the general figure title, or composite, with no reference to the individual parts. No two figures may have exactly the same title. The formatting of the titles must be consistent for all tables and figures. All doctoral candidates must provide to the abstracts of 350 words or less for all dissertations for submission to UMI. Text?Refer to the style manual required by your department for items not discussed in this section. This includes the format for references. Divisions The manuscript must be divided into a logical scheme that is followed consistently throughout the work. Chapters are the most common major division, but sections and parts are also permissible. Each chapter or section must be numbered consecutively and begin on a new page. A division entitled INTRODUCTION may be the first numbered chapter or section, or may precede the first numbered chapter or section. Chapter or section titles are primary divisions of the entire manuscript and are not part of the subdivision scheme. Subdivisions Any logical system of subdivision within chapters or sections is permissible, but the scheme must be consistent throughout the manuscript. Most style manuals will give a scheme of subdivisions. The appearance of the 8 Numbering of Tables and Figures Tables and figures may be numbered in one of several ways. Three of the most common numbering schemes are (1) to number consecutively throughout the manuscript, including the appendix, using either Roman or Arabic numerals; (2) to number consecutively within chapters or sections, with a prefix designating the chapter/section (., 3-1, 3-2 … 4-1, 4-2). Appendix tables or figures would use a prefix of A for Appendix or a prefix designating the specific appendix (., A-1, A-2 or A-1, B-1, B-2); or (3) to establish a consecutive numbering system for the body of the manuscript and a different one for the appendix (., 1, 2, 3 for text and A-1, A-2, A-3 for appendix). The style of numbering must be consistent. Placement within the Body of the Manuscript Each table or figure must immediately follow the page on which it is first mentioned (except as noted in the next paragraph) and all tables and figures must be referred to by number, not by expressions such as “the following table/figure.” When more than one table or figure is introduced on a page of text, each follows in the order mentioned. It is recommended that tables and figures be assigned pages separate from the text to avoid problems in shifting during last- minute revisions. In degree of importance, tables and figures are secondary to the text so that the text dictates where the tables or figures are placed. All pages must be filled with text and never should a page be left significantly short because of the mention of a table or figure. A table or figure less than one-half page in length (approximately 4 inches) may be incorporated within the text, provided the following criteria are met: * Must be in numerical order.?* Is separated from the text by extra space. * Is not continued onto a following page. * Follows its specific mention in the text. It is strongly suggested that if tables and figures are integrated with text, they be placed so that they appear either at the top or bottom of a page. A mention on the upper half of a page of text would mean that the bottom half of the page would be reserved for the table or figure, and a mention in the bottom half of the page would place the table or figure at the top of the next page. There should always be a balance of no less than one-half page of text and no more than one-half page of table or figure. If multiple tables or figures are mentioned together on a page, they may be placed on pages together, provided there is approximately 1/2 inch between each. Placement of Tables and Figures in the Appendix?When all tables and/or figures are in an appendix, this fact is stated in a footnote in the body of the text attached to the first mention of a table or figure and is not repeated thereafter. When only some of the tables and figures are in an appendix, their location must be clearly indicated when the items are mentioned in the text, unless the numbering scheme makes the location obvious. Horizontal Tables and Figures To accommodate large tables or figures, it is sometimes necessary to place them in horizontal orientation on the page. The margin at the binding edge must still be inches, and all other margins at least 1 inch. The margin at the top of the page and the placement of the page number must be consistent with the rest of the dissertation. The table or figure and its captions will be placed so that they can be read when the dissertation is turned 90 degrees clockwise. Foldout Pages Large tables and figures should be reduced to fit an 8 1/2 x 11 inch page, if possible. If not, material on approved paper larger than 8 1/2 x 11 inches may be included in the dissertation, provided the page itself is 11 inches vertically and is folded properly. The fold on the right side must be at least 1/2 inch from the edge of the paper. The second fold, on the left side, if needed, must be at least 1 1/2 inches from the binding edge of the paper. The finished page, folded, should measure 8 1/2 x 11 inches. If the page is to be bound into the dissertation, the paper submitted to the Division of Graduate Studies must be the same paper as the rest of the manuscript. Material in Pockets If it is necessary to include a large map, drawing, floppy disk, videotape, or any other material which cannot be bound, these materials should be itemized in a List of Plates and indicated as “In Pocket.” A label giving the plate number, title, student’s name and year of graduation is affixed to the folded plate. A pocket for the plate 9 will be attached to the inside back cover of the hard-bound copies at the bindery. It is also permissible to include less bulky material such as a survey instrument or pamphlets in a pocket attached to a sheet of approved paper with permanent cement. This material must be treated as a figure, mentioned in the text, and given a number and caption. Caution should be observed in using pockets since the material in them is easily lost. Type face for Tables Since tables are typeset rather than photographed or copied from artwork, the same type face used for the manuscript must be used for tables. The size of the type may differ, depending on the “fit” of the information within the margins. Because of the type requirements for the tables, it is seldom possible to use a table from another source “as is.” Required Table Components Since tables consist of tabulated material or columns, the use of lines in tables helps the reader distinguish the various parts of the table. One of the characteristics that identifies tabulated material as a table is the presence of at least the following three lines: * The table opening line, which appears after the table title and before the columnar headings * The columnar heading closing line, which closes off the headings from the main body of the table. * The table closing line, signaling that the data are complete. Anything appearing below the closing line is footnote material. Vertical lines are accepted but not required. Tables must have at least two columns which carry headings at the top — brief indications of the material in the columns. The headings appearing between the table opening line and the column heading closing line must apply to the entire column down to the table closing line. This is especially important in tables that continue onto additional pages. It is never appropriate to change columnar headings on continued pages. One method of avoiding a problem is to use subcolumnar heads, which are headings that appear below the column heading closing line, cut across the columns of the table, and apply to all the tabular matter lying below it. Continued Tables?Tables may be continued on as many pages as necessary, provided the columnar headings within the columnar block remain the same. The columnar block is repeated for each page. The table title is not repeated, but continuation pages are indicated with the designation: Table ___ (continued). Tables too large to fit within margins may be reduced. Table Footnotes?Footnotes to tables consist of four different categories: (1) source notes, (2) general notes, (3) notes to specific parts of the table indicated by superscripts, and (4) notes on level of probability. If the table or data within the table are taken from another source, the word Source(s): is used, followed by the full reference citation, despite the format for referencing used in the main body of the text. This ensures that if that specific page is copied in the future by an interested reader, all bibliographic information is contained within the page. All references must be included in the List of References or Bibliography. General notes are introduced as Note(s): and may include remarks that refer to the table as a whole. Notes to specific parts of the table use superscripts (letters for tables consisting of numbers; numerals for tables consisting of words; symbols if letters or numbers might be mistaken for exponents) that are attached to the part of the table to which they apply. Type Face for Figures?Since figures are considered illustrations, despite the nature of their content, any print that is part of the figure can be in any type face, provided it is neat and legible. The figure title (or caption) and page number must be in the same base type face as the rest of the manuscript. Legends for Figures Explanatory material for figures may be placed within the figure, either above or below the title, or continued after the period following the title. If a figure has a long legend which must be placed on a separate sheet because of the size of the figure, this page must be placed immediately before the figure. The page number assigned to the legend page is considered to be the first page of the figure. The figure title would appear on 10 the legend page, with the legend information. Legend pages are used only as needed. Continued Figures A figure containing several related parts too large to be included on a page may be continued onto other pages. The first page contains the figure number and title, and subsequent pages contain the remainder of the figure and Figure ___ (continued). Figure Footnotes Footnotes are placed below the figure title but are not separated by a dividing line. If the figure or information within the figure is taken from another source, the word Source(s): is used, followed by the full reference citation, regardless of the format for referencing used in the main body of the text. This ensures that if that specific page is copied in the future by an interested reader, all bibliographic information is contained within the page. If changes are made in a figure from another source, this is indicated by using the phrase “Adapted from ….” General notes are introduced as Note(s): and may include remarks that refer to the figure as a whole.?All references must be included in the Bibliography or List of References. Plates Plates are a special category consisting of pages of related figures, multiple photographs or material that cannot be bound into the manuscript in the normal binding process. Plates must be mentioned in the text by number. The plate pages then follow the first mention. Since plates may be composed of multiple figures or parts, all parts of each plate may be discussed in any manner the writer desires without further referencing once the plate is mentioned. Bibliography/List of References?A dissertation must include a list of materials used in the preparation of the manuscript. This may consist only of references cited in the text (List of References) or it may include works consulted as well (Bibliography). The list is preceded by a numbered page with the title — Bibliography of List of References — centered vertically and horizontally. The purpose of listing the citations is threefold: (1) to serve as an acknowledgment of sources, (2) to give readers sufficient information to locate the volume, and (3) in the case of personal interviews or correspondence, to save readers the trouble of attempting to locate material that is not available. The format for the citations should be that used by the appropriate style manual for the student’s department. Appendix?An appendix (appendixes or appendices), if included, is preceded by a numbered page with the designation centered vertically and horizontally between the margins. Original data and supplementary materials are usually placed in the appendix.