A) Understand the underpinnings of natural phenomena and to explain systematic relationships among them.

There are two sections Part A, Part B
Part A are all multiple questions with 1 -2 sentence RATIONALE, and Part B are simple WRITING questions.All the questions must be answered and justified.
1. In the United States, in what area does research play an important role in nursing?
A) Chronic illness
B) Credentialing and status
C) Nurses’ personalities
D) Nurses’ education
2. What is the goal of explanatory research?

B) Begins with the phenomenon of interest, but rather than simply observing and describing it, exploratory research investigates the full nature of the phenomenon, the manner in which it is manifested, and the other factors to which it is related.
C) Study phenomena about which little is known.
D) Make predictions and to control phenomena based on research findings.
3. Which group would be best served by clinical nursing research?
A) Nursing administrators
B) Practicing nurses
C) Nurses’ clients
D) Healthcare policymakers
4. There are several resources to support evidence-based practice. What is meta-synthesis?
A) Qualitative, narrative approach to integration of a study
B) Quantitative method that integrate findings statistically
C) Synthesis and appraisal of research evidence with specific recommendations
D) Set of interventions to treat or prevent a cluster of symptoms
5. A student nurse is trying to find out what a mixed methods synthesis is. What is a mixed methods synthesis?
A) Integrate and synthesize both quantitative and qualitative evidence.
B) Integrate quantitative evidence.
C) Integrate and synthesize qualitative evidence.
D) Integrate qualitative evidence.
6. Clinical practice guidelines distill a large body of evidence into a manageable form. Which describes clinical practice guidelines?
A) Give general recommendations for evidence-based decision making.
B) Address all of the issues relevant to a clinical decision.
C) Guide clinical practice when there are a number of published articles.
D) Completed by researchers.7. What is the research tradition that focuses on understanding phenomena within a cultural context?
A) Experimental
B) Phenomenological
C) Ethnographic
D) Grounded theory
8. What is the research design in qualitative studies called?
A) Experimental
B) Narrative
C) Interpretive
D) Emergent
9. Written literature reviews are undertaken for many different purposes. In a qualitative research report, what section of the report would the thematic analysis of the data be presented?
A) Introduction
B) Methods
C) Results
D) Discussion10. Under HIPAA regulations, a covered entity such as a hospital can disclose individually identifiable health information from its records if the patient signs an authorization granting access. What does this include?
A) Who will receive the information
B) Why they need the information
C) The Social Security number of the patient
D) If the data is not specifically obtained for the research
11. A researcher uses multiple sources or referents to draw conclusions about what constitutes the truth. What is this called?
A) Triangulation
B) Dependability
C) Confirmability
D) Credibility
12. What is the process of reflecting critically on the self and of scrutinizing personal values that could affect interpretation?
A) Reflexivity
B) Generalizability
C) Transferability
D) Thick description
13. The researcher wants to explore the extent to which qualitative findings can be transferred to other settings. What is this called?
A) Reflexivity
B) Generalizability
C) Transferability
D) Thick description
14. Qualitative researchers discuss methods of enhancing the study’s data by what method?
A) Trustworthiness
B) Dependability
C) Confirmability
D) Credibility
15. What refers to evidence of the researcher’s objectivity?
A) Reliability
B) Trustworthiness
C) Dependability
D) Confirmability
16. What criteria do qualitative researchers use to assess the quality of a study?
A) Validity
B) Reliability
C) Accuracy
D) Dependability
17. What is affected by the sampling plan for a research study?
A) Statistical conclusion validity
B) Internal validity
C) Construct validity
D) External validity
18. What is one type of action research?
A) Participatory
B) Discourse analysis
C) Descriptive qualitative analysis
D) Qualitative content analysis
19. Qualitative researchers use the conceptual demands of the study to select articulate and reflective informants with certain types of experience in an emergent way. What is a typical qualitative sample?
A) Large, random
B) Small, random
C) Large, nonrandom
D) Small, nonrandom
20. Qualitative researchers, like quantitative researchers, sometimes ask early informants to refer to other study participants. What type of sample is being used?
A) Convenience
B) Snowball
C) Purposive
D) Purposeful
21. Many qualitative studies eventually evolve to selecting cases that will most benefit the study. What type of sample is being used?
A) Convenience
B) Volunteer
C) Snowball
D) Purposive
22. What does the actual analysis of data usually begin with?
A) A search for major themes
B) Entering information into files
C) The use of quasi-statistics
D) Developing a system for organizing and indexing the data23. What is triangulation?
A) Use of multiple data sources to validate conclusions
B) Use of multiple methods to collect data about the same phenomenon
C) Process of using multiple referents to draw conclusions about constitutes the truth
D) Independent coding and analysis of at least a portion of the data by two or more researchers
24. Evidence-based practice relies on rigorous integration of research evidence on a topic through systematic reviews. What is a systematic review?
A) Use of carefully developed sampling and data collection procedures that are spelled out during data collection
B) Use of methodically integrated data collection procedures that are spelled out during data collection in a protocol
C) Use of carefully developed sampling and data collection procedures that are spelled out in advanced in a protocol
D) Use of methodically integrated data collection procedures that are spelled out during data collection
25. What would researchers do in developing a dissemination plan?
1. Select a communication outlet
2. Identify the audience whom they wish to reach
3. Decide on the content that can be effectively communicated.
4. How to obtain financial support for the study
A) 1, 2, 3
B) 1, 2, 4
C) 1, 3, 4
D) 2, 3, 4
26. What format do quantitative reports and many qualitative reports follow?
PART B: Read the report by Han and colleagues (Interventions that increase use of Pap tests among ethnic minority women: a meta-analysis), then answer the following questions:1. Does this report summarize a systematic review? What is the type?
2. What is the stated purpose of this report?
3. Summarize the problem in a few sentences of your own words.
4. What were the databases that the researchers searched?
5. How many researchers were involved in the research? Why?
6. What were the keywords used? Were they related to the dependent variable or the independent variable?
7. How many studies were initially identified? How many studies ultimately were included in the review? Did the researchers provide justification for inclusion/exclusion of studies?
8. Did the researchers develop quality assessment scores for each study in the dataset? If yes, how many study elements were appraised? How many people scored the studies for quality? Was inter-rater agreement assessed?
9. What was the overall effect size (see table 3)? What does this mean?
10. Answer the following questions regarding information in Table 3:
a. Among the intervention types, which had the largest effect size? Which had the smallest significant effect size?
b. In which type of setting were the interventions found to be most effective? In which type of setting were the interventions found to be least effective?
c. For which ethnic group were intervention effects significantly positive? Justify your answer
11. What is publication bias? Did this report address the issue of publication bias?
12. What is the conclusion of this report? How does it impact the nursing practice?